Excretory System


Functions


The main function of the Excretory System is to get rid of bodily waste. It is one of the most important systems in the body because the waste it gets rid of is poisonous, and if they build up in your body for too long they can kill you. The lungs, which are part of the system, remove carbon dioxide and water vapors. Uric acids, some salts, and nitrogenous waste is removed from the body by the kidneys and sweat glands.

Major Organs

One of the major organs of the excretory system are the kidneys. It's other major organ's are the urethra, sweat glands, lungs, and rectum. The kidneys are very complex organs that play very important roles such as; Liquid waste is produced in the kidneys and stored in the muscular bladder. A kidney is a bean shaped organ about 10 centimeters long and inside, each are about 1 million capillary clumps. As blood flows through the capillaries, substances move from the blood through the capillary walls into the tubes. The urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. The urethra functions to both male and female bodies. It also functions as a passage for semen. There are two different types of sweat glands, the apocrine sweat glands and the merocrine sweat glands. Both sweat glands contain "muscle" cells. Humans have two lungs, the left lung being divided into two lobes and the right with three. Lungs are what make you breathe and they also absorb water vapors. The rectum is about eight inches long and serves basically as storage for poop. The rectum has little shelves called transverse folds that make you so that you can "hold it". (Make it so that you can wait to go to the bathroom.

How it works



The Excretory system is the system the body uses to get rid of all its wastes, and involves the lungs to remove carbon dioxide from the body, the large intestine where solid wastes pass through, and the kidneys which removes a lot of the liquid waste. Some liquid waste evaporates from the skin, and some leaves through the lungs, you can actually see that on a cold day.
The first step of the excretory system is the kidneys filtering wastes out of the bloodstream as the blood goes through them. Then clean blood goes on to the rest of the body. The wastes then travel through the ureters to the urinary bladder. In the urinary bladder the urine is stored until it is ready to be released. It is released through the urethra.

How it works with other systems (at least 3 different systems)


The excretory system works with the respiratory, endocrine, and digestive system. The respiratory system works with it because it helps the lungs get rid of carbon dioxide and water vapors. It works with the endocrine system because the endocrine system has glands from the excretory system to get rid of wastes. It works with the digestive system to help get rid of wastes that you eat through the anus.

Disorders of the excretory system


Some diseases and disorders of the excretory system are Nephritis and Nephrosis. Nephritis is a swelling of the glomeruli, because things like strep throat. You may have bloody pee, very little amount and swelling. Nephrosis also affects the glomeruli. If you have Nephrosis you will have swelling throughout you whole body and have “puffy” eyelids. It’s often caused by too much protein and the doctors will have to put you on a low-salt diet.
Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria like E. coli. Women get more bladder infections than men because the opening of the urethra is closer to the anus. The way a women cleans the area can cause infections. The most common mistake is when a girl wipes herself back to front. This wipes bacteria from the anal towards the vagina and urethra. Women who do this should try change their habit and wipe front to back.
Their are all lot of kinds of kidney stones. Most are caused calcium oxalate. Stones can be microscopic to very large. They often fill the whole renal pelvis and causes the kidney to stop working. The stones are passed down the ureter and the person experiences much pain. Stones can be broken down with ultrasound but if they are too big they’ll have to be surgically removed. Kidney stones can be caused by many different ways like too much vitamin D.



Sources

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/LifeScience/GeneralBiology/Physiology/ExcretorySystem/HumanExcretory/HumanExcretory.htm
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-excretio.html
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/#1
http://health.howstuffworks.com/kidney.htm
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2001_saladin/folder_structure/ab/m2/s1/index.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excretory_system
http://library.thinkquest.org/10348/find/content/excretory.html
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio105/kidney.htm